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Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology

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  • معلومة اضافية
    • Affiliation:
      a Institute of Geography and Regional Development, University of Wrocław, pl. Uniwersytecki 1, 50-137 Wrocław, Poland
      b School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, United Kingdom
    • Note:
      This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Robert Wray, who passed away while this paper was in revision, in acknowledgement of his significant input to the understanding of ruiniform relief.
    • Keywords:
      Rock control in geomorphology
      Ruiniform relief
      Sandstone landforms
      Karst
      Mass movements
      Silica dissolution
      Geoheritage
    • Abstract:
      Spectacular rock-cut landscapes consisting of closely spaced residual rock blocks separated by narrow intersecting corridors are variously termed as ‘rock cities’ and ‘ruiniform relief’. The former term has apparently never been formally defined except in the local Czech literature, whereas the latter was applied in various contexts, making the terminology confusing. This paper provides a global overview of forms, processes and controls behind such rock city/ruiniform landscapes and develops geomorphological terminology for such rock-cut landscapes, including the proposal that ‘rock city’ becomes a legitimate scientific term. Rock cities and ruiniform relief are two different types of rock erosional morphology, typified by the presence of a ‘street pattern’ in the former and highly weathered surfaces of rock residuals in the latter, although there is some overlap between the two. Examples of rock cities or ruiniform relief may be found in different lithologies and in a wide range of climates, from hyper-arid to humid. Classic localities include northern Czechia and adjacent parts of Poland and Germany, Australia, central Sahara, and the Gran Sabana in Venezuela. Lithologies particularly suitable to the development of this type of erosional morphology include mainly sandstones, followed by limestones, dolomites, conglomerates, tuffs, but igneous rocks such as granites or rhyolites are also known to support this type of relief. The combination of sufficient rock strength to support steep rock faces and the presence of discontinuities which, preferentially eroded, turn to ‘streets’ and ‘squares’ in the rock cities, appears as the basic prerequisite. A wide range of processes are involved in their formation, including surface and subsurface weathering, mass movements, salt tectonics, karst processes in both carbonate and silicate rocks, piping, fluvial erosion and aeolian abrasion. Despite being spectacular landscapes, very few models of long-term evolution of rock city and ruiniform relief have been presented in the literature and it is unlikely that any one scenario would apply to all situations. Rather, rock cities are examples of geomorphological convergence.
    • ISSN:
      0012-8252
    • Accession Number:
      10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012
    • Accession Number:
      S0012825217301010
    • Copyright:
      © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      MIGOŃ, P.; DUSZYŃSKI, F.; GOUDIE, A. Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology. Earth-Science Reviews, [s. l.], v. 171, p. 78–104, 2017. DOI 10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=S0012825217301010&custid=s8280428. Acesso em: 15 jul. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Migoń P, Duszyński F, Goudie A. Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology. Earth-Science Reviews. 2017;171:78-104. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012.
    • AMA11:
      Migoń P, Duszyński F, Goudie A. Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology. Earth-Science Reviews. 2017;171:78-104. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012
    • APA:
      Migoń, P., Duszyński, F., & Goudie, A. (2017). Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology. Earth-Science Reviews, 171, 78–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Migoń, Piotr, Filip Duszyński, and Andrew Goudie. 2017. “Rock Cities and Ruiniform Relief: Forms – Processes – Terminology.” Earth-Science Reviews 171 (August): 78–104. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012.
    • Harvard:
      Migoń, P., Duszyński, F. and Goudie, A. (2017) ‘Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology’, Earth-Science Reviews, 171, pp. 78–104. doi: 10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Migoń, P, Duszyński, F & Goudie, A 2017, ‘Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology’, Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 171, pp. 78–104, viewed 15 July 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Migoń, Piotr, et al. “Rock Cities and Ruiniform Relief: Forms – Processes – Terminology.” Earth-Science Reviews, vol. 171, Aug. 2017, pp. 78–104. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Migoń, Piotr, Filip Duszyński, and Andrew Goudie. “Rock Cities and Ruiniform Relief: Forms – Processes – Terminology.” Earth-Science Reviews 171 (August 1, 2017): 78–104. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.05.012.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Migoń P, Duszyński F, Goudie A. Rock cities and ruiniform relief: Forms – processes – terminology. Earth-Science Reviews [Internet]. 2017 Aug 1 [cited 2020 Jul 15];171:78–104. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edselp&AN=S0012825217301010&custid=s8280428