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Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands

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  • معلومة اضافية
    • Contributors:
      Mangold, Jane; Parkinson, Hilary; Duncan, Celestine; Rice, Peter; Davis, Ed; Menalled, Fabian
    • Publication Information:
      Weed Science Society of America, 2013.
    • Publication Date:
      2013
    • Abstract:
      Downy brome is a problematic invasive annual grass throughout western rangeland and has been increasing its abundance, spread, and impacts across Montana during the past several years. In an effort to develop effective management recommendations for control of downy brome on Montana rangeland, we compiled data from 24 trials across the state that investigated efficacy of imazapic (Plateau®, BASF Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC) applied at various rates and timings and with methylated seed oil (MSO) or a nonionic surfactant (NIS). We ran a mixed-model ANOVA to test for main effects and interactions across application rate (70, 105, 141, 176, and 211 g ai ha⁻¹), application timing (preemergent [PRE], early postemergent [EPOST, one- to two-leaf growth stage], and postemergent [POST, three- to four-leaf growth stage]), and adjuvant (MSO, NIS). Application timing and rate interacted to affect downy brome control (P = 0.0033). PRE imazapic application resulted in the lowest downy brome control (5 to 19%), followed by POST application (25 to 77%) and EPOST application (70 to 95%). Downy brome control remained fairly consistent across rates within application timing. Adjuvant (MSO or NIS) did not affect downy brome control (P = 0.2789). Our data indicate that POST application at 105 to 141 g ai ha⁻¹ provides the most-consistent, short-term control of downy brome. Furthermore, applying imazapic to downy brome seedlings shortly after emergence (one- to two-leaf growth stage) provided better control than applying it to older downy brome seedlings (three- to four-leaf growth stage).Nomenclature: Imazapic; downy brome, Bromus tectorum L. BROTE.Management Implications: Management of the invasive annual grass downy brome (Bromus tectorum) remains challenging on western rangeland. Chemical control has produced inconsistent results, especially with the herbicide imazapic (Plateau®, BASF Corporation, Research Triangle Park, NC). Downy brome has been increasing during the past several years on rangeland across Montana where effective management recommendations for chemical control are needed. We compiled data from 24 independent herbicide trials across Montana, from 2000 to 2010, which investigated the efficacy of imazapic applied at various rates and timings and with methylated seed oil (MSO) or a nonionic surfactant (NIS). We tested for general trends in downy brome control across application rate (70, 105, 141, 176, 211 g ai ha⁻¹ [1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3.1 oz ai ac⁻¹]), application timing (preemergent [PRE], early postemergent [EPOST, one- to two-leaf growth stage], and postemergent [POST, three- to four-leaf growth stage]), and adjuvant (MSO, NIS). Downy brome control was especially affected by application timing. PRE imazapic application resulted in the lowest downy brome control (5 to 19%), followed by POST application (25 to 77%) and EPOST application (70 to 95%). Downy brome control remained fairly consistent across rates within application timing. Adjuvant did not affect downy brome control. Our data indicated that an EPOST (downy brome at the one- to two-leaf growth stage) application at 105 to 141 g ai ha⁻¹ provided the most-consistent control of downy brome. Most published literature on the efficacy of imazapic for controlling downy brome do not report growth stage at the time of application, but our data indicate that timing of imazapic application influences its efficacy. Therefore, land managers should be aware of the growth stage of downy brome when imazapic applications are made and interpret outcomes with this factor in mind.
    • ISSN:
      1939-747X
    • Accession Number:
      edsagr.US201600024930
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands. Invasive plant science and management, [s. l.], v. 6, n. 4, p. 554–558, 2013. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsagr&AN=edsagr.US201600024930&custid=s8280428. Acesso em: 23 set. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands. Invasive plant science and management. 2013;6(4):554-558. Accessed September 23, 2020. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsagr&AN=edsagr.US201600024930&custid=s8280428
    • APA:
      Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands. (2013). Invasive Plant Science and Management, 6(4), 554–558.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      “Downy Brome (Bromus Tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands.” 2013. Invasive Plant Science and Management 6 (4): 554–58. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsagr&AN=edsagr.US201600024930&custid=s8280428.
    • Harvard:
      ‘Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands’ (2013) Invasive plant science and management, 6(4), pp. 554–558. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsagr&AN=edsagr.US201600024930&custid=s8280428 (Accessed: 23 September 2020).
    • Harvard: Australian:
      ‘Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands’ 2013, Invasive plant science and management, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 554–558, viewed 23 September 2020, .
    • MLA:
      “Downy Brome (Bromus Tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands.” Invasive Plant Science and Management, vol. 6, no. 4, Oct. 2013, pp. 554–558. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsagr&AN=edsagr.US201600024930&custid=s8280428.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      “Downy Brome (Bromus Tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands.” Invasive Plant Science and Management 6, no. 4 (October 1, 2013): 554–58. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsagr&AN=edsagr.US201600024930&custid=s8280428.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Downy Brome (Bromus tectorum) Control with Imazapic on Montana Grasslands. Invasive plant science and management [Internet]. 2013 Oct 1 [cited 2020 Sep 23];6(4):554–8. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=edsagr&AN=edsagr.US201600024930&custid=s8280428