Insulin resistance affecting skeletal muscle metabolism is present in the prehypertensive state. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that blood pressure value is related to skeletal muscle composition, measured by (31)P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy, and to insulin sensitivity in the offspring of hypertensive parents (OH) and healthy controls. Study groups consisted of 10 healthy young lean OH with normal glucose tolerance, confirmed with oral glucose tolerance test, and 13 controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index. Insulin action was estimated as glucose disposal (M), glucose metabolic clearance rate (MCR), and insulin sensitivity index (M/I) during a 10-hour hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. The sum of immunoreactive insulin values from the oral glucose tolerance test was calculated. (31)P MR spectroscopy was performed on a whole-body MR scanner (Siemens Vision, Erlangen, Germany) operating at 1.5 T and equipped with actively shielded gradient coils. There were no differences in common metabolic and anthropometric parameters between OH and controls except for the blood pressure, which was in the range of normal to high-normal level in OH. Mean blood pressure was significantly higher in OH (95.73 +/- 4.39 vs 83.76 +/- 3.95 mm Hg; P < .001). Trend toward insulin resistance was registered in OH with significantly lower M/I (0.74 +/- 0.47 vs 1.42 +/- 0.65 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) x mIU(-1) x L(-1); P < .05). There were no significant differences in total serum magnesium (sMg) levels between OH and controls, although a positive correlation exists between sMg and insulin sensitivity expressed as M (r = 0.63, P < .01), MCR (r = 0.54, P < .01), and M/I (r = 0.51, P < .05). No differences in signal intensities of phosphocreatine (PCr), phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters, inorganic phosphates (Pi), adenosine triphosphates (Patp and betaATP), and calculated concentrations of intracellular ionized magnesium (Mgi) and H(+) ions between the groups were detected. Systolic blood pressure correlates positively with PCr/Patp (r = 0.43, P < .05), Pi/Patp (r = 0.413, P < .05), and Pi/betaATP (r = 0.48, P < .05). Diastolic blood pressure correlates positively only with the ratio Pi/betaATP (r = 0.42, P < .05). The sum of immunoreactive insulin values correlates with PCr/betaATP (r = 0.53, P < .01) and with Pi/betaATP (r = 0.6, P < .01). In conclusion, increase in blood pressure and insulin resistance were confirmed in offspring of OH. Insulin sensitivity is related to sMg and the elevation of blood pressure is associated with the activation of energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. The relationship between muscle energetic characteristics and markers of insulin resistance suggests that the alteration of energy metabolism may be present in early stages of metabolic syndrome.