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Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing.

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  • معلومة اضافية
    • NAICS/Industry Codes:
      711219 Other Spectator Sports
      339920 Sporting and Athletic Goods Manufacturing
      414470 Amusement and sporting goods merchant wholesalers
      423910 Sporting and Recreational Goods and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers
      451110 Sporting Goods Stores
      451112 Ski equipment and supplies specialty stores
      713920 Skiing Facilities
      541420 Industrial Design Services
    • Abstract:
      Background/aim: Aggressive ski-snow interaction is characterised by direct force transmission and difficulty of getting the ski off its edge once the ski is carving. This behaviour has been suggested to be a main contributor to severe knee injuries in giant slalom (GS). The aim of the current study was to provide a foundation for new equipment specifications in GS by considering two perspectives: Reducing the ski's aggressiveness for injury prevention and maintaining the external attractiveness of a ski racer's technique for spectators.Methods: Three GS ski prototypes were defined based on theoretical considerations and were compared to a reference ski (Pref). Compared to Pref, all prototypes were constructed with reduced profile width and increased ski length. The construction radius (sidecut radius) of Pref was ≥ 27 m and was increased for the prototypes: 30 m (P30), 35 m (P35), and 40 m (P40). Seven World Cup level athletes performed GS runs on each of the three prototypes and Pref. Kinetic variables related to the ski-snow interaction were assessed to quantify the ski's aggressiveness. Additionally, 13 athletes evaluated their subjective perception of aggressiveness. 15 sports students rated several videotaped runs to assess external attractiveness.Results: Kinetic variables quantifying the ski's aggressiveness showed decreased values for P35 and P40 compared to Pref and P30. Greater sidecut radius reduced subjectively perceived aggressiveness. External attractiveness was reduced for P40 only.Conclusions: This investigation revealed the following evaluation of the prototypes concerning injury prevention and external attractiveness: P30: no preventative gain, no loss in attractiveness; P35: substantial preventative gain, no significant loss in attractiveness; P40: highest preventative gain, significant loss in attractiveness. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
    • Abstract:
      Copyright of British Journal of Sports Medicine is the property of BMJ Publishing Group and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
    • Author Affiliations:
      1Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Hallein-Rif, Austria
      2Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway
    • ISSN:
      0306-3674
    • Accession Number:
      10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433
    • Accession Number:
      111993562
  • Citations
    • ABNT:
      KRÖLL, J. et al. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing. British Journal of Sports Medicine, [s. l.], v. 50, n. 1, p. 20–25, 2016. DOI 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433. Disponível em: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=asn&AN=111993562&custid=s8280428. Acesso em: 12 jul. 2020.
    • AMA:
      Kröll J, Spörri J, Gilgien M, Schwameder H, Müller E. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;50(1):20-25. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433.
    • AMA11:
      Kröll J, Spörri J, Gilgien M, Schwameder H, Müller E. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;50(1):20-25. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433
    • APA:
      Kröll, J., Spörri, J., Gilgien, M., Schwameder, H., & Müller, E. (2016). Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(1), 20–25. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433
    • Chicago/Turabian: Author-Date:
      Kröll, Josef, Jörg Spörri, Matthias Gilgien, Hermann Schwameder, and Erich Müller. 2016. “Effect of Ski Geometry on Aggressive Ski Behaviour and Visual Aesthetics: Equipment Designed to Reduce Risk of Severe Traumatic Knee Injuries in Alpine Giant Slalom Ski Racing.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 50 (1): 20–25. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433.
    • Harvard:
      Kröll, J. et al. (2016) ‘Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing’, British Journal of Sports Medicine, 50(1), pp. 20–25. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433.
    • Harvard: Australian:
      Kröll, J, Spörri, J, Gilgien, M, Schwameder, H & Müller, E 2016, ‘Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing’, British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 20–25, viewed 12 July 2020, .
    • MLA:
      Kröll, Josef, et al. “Effect of Ski Geometry on Aggressive Ski Behaviour and Visual Aesthetics: Equipment Designed to Reduce Risk of Severe Traumatic Knee Injuries in Alpine Giant Slalom Ski Racing.” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 50, no. 1, Jan. 2016, pp. 20–25. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433.
    • Chicago/Turabian: Humanities:
      Kröll, Josef, Jörg Spörri, Matthias Gilgien, Hermann Schwameder, and Erich Müller. “Effect of Ski Geometry on Aggressive Ski Behaviour and Visual Aesthetics: Equipment Designed to Reduce Risk of Severe Traumatic Knee Injuries in Alpine Giant Slalom Ski Racing.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 50, no. 1 (January 2016): 20–25. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2015-095433.
    • Vancouver/ICMJE:
      Kröll J, Spörri J, Gilgien M, Schwameder H, Müller E. Effect of ski geometry on aggressive ski behaviour and visual aesthetics: equipment designed to reduce risk of severe traumatic knee injuries in alpine giant slalom ski racing. British Journal of Sports Medicine [Internet]. 2016 Jan [cited 2020 Jul 12];50(1):20–5. Available from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&site=eds-live&db=asn&AN=111993562&custid=s8280428